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[…] is said to be pre-diabetic or have pre-diabetes only when the blood glucose level or the blood sugar levels are higher than usual. However, the blood glucose levels are not as high as those considered for a […]

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Different Types Of Blood Sugar Levels You Should Know!

By Dr. Nikita Toshi +2 more

Diabetes, also known as Diabetes mellitus, in medical parlance, falls under a group of metabolic diseases, where a patient has high blood sugar (glucose). This is a serious global disease that has gripped people of various age groups across multiple nationalities.

Diabetes typically occurs due to:

Understanding Types Of Blood Sugar Levels - PharmEasy

  1. Inadequate insulin production in the body or
  2. When body cells don’t respond correctly to the insulin or
  3. Both the above

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has identified the below set of people to be susceptible to diabetes:

  1. People with a body mass index higher than 25 and 23 in the case of Asian-Americans. This is regardless of age. But the chances of getting diagnosed with diabetes increases manifold if the following conditions also prevail:
    • Erratic cholesterol levels
    • High Blood pressure
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • History of diabetes among close family members
  1. The Association also recommends diabetes testing to be done on a regular basis for people above the age group of 45 years and if the results are within the prescribed limits then tests should be repeated every three years.
  2. Any woman who has had gestational diabetes should get herself checked every three years.

Some common symptoms that diabetic patients experience include:

  • Frequent urination (Polyuria)
  • Increased thirst (Polydipsia)
  • Increased hunger (Polyphagia)
  • Increased fatigue
  • Slower healing process where cuts and bruises take longer than usual to heal
  • Itchy skin, in some cases
  • Numbness and tingling feeling in hands and feet

Diagnosis Of Diabetes

More often than not, the diagnosis of diabetes includes carrying out a urine test. This test reveals whether there is excess glucose present in the body. This is typically followed up with a blood test to calculate the blood sugar levels. Since a patient cannot feel whether the blood sugar is high or low, this testing needs to be conducted at regular intervals, sometimes even several times in the day, to keep a check on the sugar levels.

Calculate your blood sugar levels via a urine test now. Book Here.

Knowing FPG, PPG & HB A1C Numbers


FPG stands for ”Fasting Plasma Glucose”. This is the blood sugar level when you have been fasting for at least 8 hours. This is usually checked a couple of hours after one wakes up in the morning and primarily helps in the diagnosis of diabetes and pre-diabetes. While you are not permitted to consume anything for 8 to 10 hours before taking the test, you can consume water at regular intervals.

The FPG results typically fall under the below readings:

  1. Normal reading – less than100 mg/dl
  2. Prediabetes/Impaired Fasting Glucose reading – 100 mg/dl to 125 mg/dl
  3. Diabetes reading – above 126 mg/dl

Book Your FPG Test Here.


PPG stands for ”Postprandial Plasma Glucose”. This is the after-meals blood sugar level that is usually checked one to two hours post eating. This testing is generally done to check the spike in the blood sugar level post eating and is usually done to check how tolerant the body is to glucose.

The PPG results typically fall under the below readings:

  1. Normal reading – less than 140 mg/dl
  2. Impaired Glucose Tolerance reading – between 140 mg/dl and 200 mg/dl
  3. Diabetes reading – Equal or above 200 mg/dl

Book Your PPG Test Here.

Another important number that the ADA prescribes is the A1C number, which is also popularly known as Glycated Hemoglobin, Glycosylated Hemoglobin, Hemoglobin A1C, and HbA1c.

A1C –

This is a very important number that basically describes how well your blood sugar has been controlled over the past 2 to 3 months. It also tells your diabetes control team how effectively your overall diabetes control plan is working.   In a nutshell, your A1C Control = FPG Control + PPG Control.

Book Your HB A1C Test Here.

Why Is It Important To Know FPG, PPG & HBA1C numbers?

The A1C test measures what percentage of your haemoglobin is coated with sugar (glycated). Haemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The higher the A1C level, the poorer is your blood sugar control and the higher is the risk of developing diabetes-related complications. The A1C test plays a vital role in predicting prediabetes, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.

Also Read: Turbinado Sugar: Understanding Its Health Impact and Uses

Why Is It So Important To Control These numbers?

Good control over the A1C helps to safeguard the body from numerous diabetes-related risks such as:

These are microvascular complications that primarily cause damage to small blood vessels.

Along with these, there are some macrovascular problems too that damage the large blood vessels. These include:

  • Heart attack
  • Strokes
  • Peripheral arterial disease

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

This type of diabetes typically occurs during childhood or during the adolescence stages. This diabetes type requires regular insulin treatment, generally for life, to keep the blood sugar levels in control.

Type 2 Diabetes

This is the most common and prevalent kind of diabetes. It usually develops in adulthood and is mostly observed in people who are largely inactive or overweight. Read more about the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Difference Between Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes

                                 Type 1 Diabetes                                 Type 2 Diabetes
In this type of diabetes, your body attacks the cells in your pancreas which means it cannot make any insulin.In type 2 diabetes, your body is unable to make enough insulin or the insulin you do make doesn’t work properly.
The symptoms of type 1 appear more quickly.Type 2 symptoms can be easier to miss because they appear more slowly.
Type 1 is managed by taking insulin to control your blood sugar.You can manage type 2 diabetes in more ways than type 1. These include medication, exercise and diet. People with type 2 can also be prescribed insulin.
Currently, there is no cure for type 1 but research continues.Type 2 cannot be cured but there is evidence to say in many cases it can be prevented.

Diabetes Treatment

Administration of oral drugs is given when lifestyle modifications have been unsuccessful in bringing down the blood sugar levels. These oral doses work well to treat Type 2 diabetes, but Type 1 patients have to resort to insulin injections or insulin pumps.

Read More About: Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Disclaimer: The information provided here is for educational/awareness purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for medical treatment by a healthcare professional and should not be relied upon to diagnose or treat any medical condition. The reader should consult a registered medical practitioner to determine the appropriateness of the information and before consuming any medication. PharmEasy does not provide any guarantee or warranty (express or implied) regarding the accuracy, adequacy, completeness, legality, reliability or usefulness of the information; and disclaims any liability arising thereof.

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