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URINE ROUTINE

About the test
What is this test done for?
A routine urinalysis is used for evaluating kidney and urinary tract involvement in infections, metabolic and genetic disorders.
Why is it Done?
Routine urinalysis is most commonly indicated when a doctor suspects -
  • urinary tract infection (UTI),
  • kidney disease,
  • metabolic disorders such as diabetes,
  • as part of routine health check up.
When should it be performed?
It is usually ordered when patient has symptoms like abdominal pain, burning or painful urination, blood in the urine, frequent urination, or any other urinary symptoms.
How is it done
An early morning urine sample will be needed. Discard the first urine and collect sample from middle stream, avoiding any contact with skin. Collect urine in a sterile container.
Results
  • Urine color may vary due to certain medications, foods, and medical conditions, and any deviation from the normal color may be indicative of conditions such as UTIs, kidney stones, liver disease, etc. Red colour can occasionally due to TB medication- rifampin.
  • Urinary pH levels determined by chemical examination/urine dipstick are particularly useful in the detection of stones, infection, and renal tubular acidosis.
  • Presence of bacteria indicates an active urine infection anywhere along the urinary tract.
  • Presence of glucose in the urine indicates diabetes mellitus.
  • Ketonuria may be seen with uncontrolled diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, severe exercise, high fever, starvation, and pregnancy.
  • Patients with proteinuria may have congestive heart failure, fever, after a strenuous exercise, seizure disorders like epilepsy, etc.
  • A positive occult blood can mean hematuria, hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria, or false-positive results due to contamination during periods in women.
Other Tests
A doctor might order a urine microscopy and urine culture if UTI is suspected and abdominal ultrasound if kidney stones are suspected. Blood sugar fasting (FBS) test and HbA1c may be ordered by the clinician if diabetes mellitus is suspected.
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