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Hadjod: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects & More!

By Dr Rajeev Singh +2 more

Introduction: 

Cissus quadrangularis, commonly known as ‘Hadjod’ in Hindi, is a fleshy plant belonging to the Vitaceae family.1 It is known by numerous vernacular names depending on the region. In Bangladesh, it is known as Hathisur; in Sri Lanka, it is known as Heeressa; in West Africa, it is known as Treebine, Zarnazaru, Banddiagra, Oongoonujaara; in Thailand, it is known as Khankho, phet sangkhaat, san cha khuat; and in India, it is known as Bonesetter, Adamant creeper, Veldt-grape, Hadjod, Hadsanka and Asthisamadhani. Hadjod, also known as Asthisamharaka, is a luscious herb found in India’s warmest regions. It can grow up to 500 metres above sea level in plain coastal areas, forests, and wastelands.  

Stem cuttings are used to propagate the herb. From June to December, the herb blooms. It is a climbing herb that turns leafless as it ages. It is a shrubby climber that can grow up to 1.5 metres tall. The plant blossoms small greenish-white flowers. The leaves are2.5-5 cm long, broadly ovate or kidney-shaped leaves. The calyx is cup-shaped, short, and deciduous. There are 4-5 petals on each flower. The fruits are obovoid, very acrid, one-seeded, and dark purple to black. The stem is smooth, branched, glabrous, subangular, and fibrous and found to be buff coloured with a greenish tinge. The stems measure 8–10 cm in length and 1–1.5 cm in width.2  

Hadjod-powder-bone fractures-diabetes-immunomodulation

Iridoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, stilbene derivatives, sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, methyl esters, and other phytochemicals have been found in the hadjod. The presence of five well-known chemicals on leaves were discovered, including Tetratriacotanol, Ecosyl eicosanoate, Tetratriacontanoic acid, αβ-amyrin, β-sitosterol. Polyphenols such as Daidezein, Quercetin, and Genistein were also reported in the leaves.1 

Nutritional Value of Hadjod: 

The nutritional content fount in hadjod root powder/100 gm is: 

Carbohydrates 68.89  ± 1.16 mg  
Proteins 7.5  ± 0.17 mg 
Fibres 5.97  ±  0.10 mg 
Potassium  67.5 mg 
Calcium  39.5 mg 
Zinc  3 mg 
Sodium  22.5 mg 
Iron  7.5 mg 
Lead  3.5 mg 
Cadmium  39.5 mg 
Copper  0.5 mg 
Magnesium  1.15 mg 
Table1: Nutrients found in Hadjod 2, 3 

Hadjod might be your ally in dental problems! Yes, you read it right! Recent studies have revealed that the use of Hadjod may help in alleviating dental cavities when they start due to its anti-bacterial nature.

Dr. Siddharth Gupta, MD

Therapeutic Uses of Hadjod: 

  • Hadjod stem: It is used to treat various medical conditions. Furthermore, it is one of the most regularly utilised food supplements in southern India.2 
  • Hadjod leaves: The plant’s young shoots are considered stomachic.1 
  • Hadjod leaves powder: It is used to treat stomach problems.1 
  • Hadjod juice: For the union of fractured bones, it is given both internally and applied externally.1 
  • Hadjod shoot juice: When sprayed into the nostrils, the juice helps with epistaxis (nose bleeding). It is also used as an eardrop for otorrhea and irregular menstruation.1 
  • Hadjod shoot ash powder: The powder shoot ash is taken internally to treat dyspepsia.1 
  • Hadjod root powder: It is used to union bone fractures and is also used to treat constipation and gout.1 

Also Read: Malkangani: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects & More!

I recently read an article that says Hadjod may be used as a diuretic. Hadjod is known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Dr. Rajeev Singh, BAMS

Benefits of Hadjod: 

1. Benefits of Hadjod for Pain: 

Traditional Hadjod folklore is that it is used to relieve pain. Animal models that are widely accepted worldwide were used to test its analgesic potential. Hadjod’s effects were shown to be effective even at low doses, indicating that the herb has high potency in simulating central and peripheral pain. The phytosterols β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glycoside, terpenoids, and phenolic substances such as resveratrol, quercetin, quercitrin, and kaempferol found in hadjod are thought to have analgesic properties.2 

2. Benefits of Hadjod for Ulcer: 

The presence of phytochemicals like polyphenols, glycosides, vitamin C and β-sitosterol in hadjod may contribute to antiulcer potential or accelerate ulcer healing by releasing polyamines and transforming growth factor-α. Hadjod displayed cytoprotection by increasing potassium, hexosamine, bicarbonate, and the carbohydrate/protein ratio while lowering pepsin, proteins, and acid secretion in stomach.2 

Read More: Stomach Ulcer: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

3. Benefits of Hadjod for Infections: 

Traditional literature mentions the use of hadjod in treating a variety of bacterial and viral infections. The steroids and flavonoids present in a partially purified extract of the hadjod stem was found to have excellent antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types I and II.2 

In an antibacterial study, six different extracts of hadjod stem were tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result, methanol extract was found to have superior antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes, B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhi, among other bacteria.2 

The antifungal activity of hadjod extract was determined by comparing it to the standard medication fluconazole. The diameter of the zone of inhibition generated on the surface of Petri dishes was used to determine antifungal activity. The study found that hadjod extract had promising antifungal efficacy against Aspergillus flavus.1 

4. Benefits of Hadjod for Worm Infections: 

On the Haemonchus contortus worm, the anthelmintic activity of hadjod extract was investigated. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and phenols in the extract may contribute to its anthelmintic effect.2 

Read More: National Deworming Day: All You Need To Know!

5. Benefits of Hadjod for Cancer: 

Hadjod has shown anticancer and antitumor activity in a variety of cancer cell lines, including breast cancer, osteosarcoma, leukaemia, Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma, and Erlich ascitic induced carcinoma. The extract of hadjod at various doses has been investigated to protect rats from breast cancer. All biochemical and haematological changes caused by 7,12-Dimethylben (a) anthracene were reversed when rats were given hadjod extract.2 

6. Benefits of Hadjod for Inflammation: 

Ear oedema was used to test hadjod’s anti-inflammatory activity in rats. Hadjod can reduce swelling, relieve pain, treat allied illnesses associated with fractures, and aid in healing fractures. The inclusion of Beta-sitosterol and luteolin flavonoids in hadjod is responsible for its anti-inflammatory properties. Hadjod inhibits many inflammatory mediators that increase vascular permeability, support vasodilation, and cause oedema development.3 

7. Benefits of Hadjod for Obesity: 

In hyperlipidemia models in rats, hadjod extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index while increasing high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Hadjod’s antihyperlipidemic properties are thought to be related to phytosterols, including stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, ketosteroid, and flavonoids like kaemferol, quercetin, and daidzein. Phytosterols may lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels or diminish intestinal cholesterol absorption by increasing faecal cholesterol excretion.2 

Read More: How Does Junk Food Damage Your Body?

8. Benefits of Hadjod for Fertility: 

In rats, an extract of hadjod stem restored significant abnormalities caused by lead acetate. The use of hadjod extract on rats increases total sperm count. Antioxidant deficiency harms sperm viability and motility in males. Hadjod’s anti-infertility effect is attributed to its antioxidant enzymes restorative capacity or pregnancy abruption, implantation inhibition, and abortion induction.2 

9. Benefits of Hadjod for Diabetes: 

In diabetic rats, the injection of hadjod extract at various doses considerably lowers blood glucose levels. Furthermore, hadjod extract caused a rise in plasma insulin levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes and histology in diabetic mice. Improvements in glycemic metabolism and regulation, free radical elimination, cholesterol reduction, insulin secretion, and microcirculation can contribute to hadjod’s antidiabetic action.2 

Also Read: Atibala – Benefits, Side Effects, Precautions & More!

10. Benefits of Hadjod for Haemorrhoids: 

Hadjod extract’s anti-haemorrhoids activity was tested on an isolated human umbilical vein, which caused contraction of vascular smooth muscles of the vein. Hadjod extract was found to have a venoconstrictive impact on the intact inner lining of the vein.2 

In clinical research, taking an tablet of hadjod reduced piles symptoms in patients. Flavonoids, which are significant phytochemicals, are thought to help treat haemorrhoidal diseases by reducing localised bleeding, itching, and discomfort, potentially through improving capillary resistance and venous tonicity by lowering capillary permeability.2 

11. Benefits of Hadjod for Immunomodulation: 

Hadjod’s extract significantly increased blood carbon clearance, blood immunoglobulin levels, and a delayed-type of hypersensitive response to sheep red blood cells. In another study, hadjod extract nanoparticles corrected immunosuppression in immunosuppressive animals using sheep red blood cells. The findings suggested that hadjod had immunomodulatory properties in both cellular and humoral immunity.2 

12. Benefits of Hadjod for Arthritis:  

Hadjod has been shown to have antiarthritic potential in various animal models. Hadjod extract was found to have an antiarthritic effect by reducing bone and cartilage degeneration, excessive paw inflammation, and associated biochemical and haematological changes.2 

Also Read: 6 Best Foods To Help Beat Arthritis

13. Benefits of Hadjod for Bone Function:  

Hadjod’s antiosteoporotic potential has been demonstrated in various animal models by several authors. An osteoporotic rat model of ovariectomy, closed fracture by bending the radius-ulna in rats and dogs was used to test the antiarthritic activity of hadjod extract. The work was carried out in vitro using cell lines.2 

Few clinical studies have shown that hadjod, combined with Zingiber officinale, can reduce joint swelling, discomfort, and soreness in osteoporotic and fractured patients. Hadjod’s bone protective activity is thought to be due to its steroidal content, which functions as phytoestrogens to prevent or minimise bone loss and suppress bone reabsorption caused by oestrogen deficiency.2 

14. Benefits of Hadjod as an Antioxidant Activity: 

Various research has already assessed the antioxidant activity of hadjod utilising different antioxidant assays and procedures. By lowering serum enzyme levels and boosting antioxidant enzyme levels, the antioxidant activity of hadjod extract was examined on liver protective activity.2 

Also Read: Lavangadi Vati: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects & More!

How to Use Hadjod? 

  • Hadjod tablets2 
  • Hadjod capsule2 
  • Hadjod powder2 
  • Hadjod drops2 

Your Ayurvedic physician will guide you for the appropriate dose and frequency of medication as per your condition. Avoid self-medication.  

Also Read: Worst Foods for Oedema: A Research-Backed Guide for Dietary Awareness

Side Effects of Hadjod:  

Various studies demonstrate that hadjod extracts are safe and free of side effects at commonly used doses. The reported side effects of hadjod extract are lack of appetite, staggering, dyspnoea, and diarrhoea in a limited case.4 

Frequently Asked Questions: 

What are the synonyms of hadjod? 

It is known as Heeressa, Hathisur, Khankho, Zarnazaru, Treebine, Banddiagra, Oongoonujaara, phet sangkhaat, san cha khuat, Veldt-grape, Adamant creeper, Asthisamadhani, Bonesetter, and Hadsanka in different regions.2 

What are the chemical constituents of hadjod? 

The plant contains several phytoconstituents like iridoids, stilbene derivatives, sterols, triterpenes, alkaloids, fatty acids, methyl esters, flavonoids.1,2 

What is the use of hadjod? 

It treats constipation, piles, tumours, blindness, loss of appetite, muscular pain, vata and kapha, epileptic fits, chronic ulcers, and bone fractures. It is also used as a digestive, anthelmintic, analgesic, laxative, stomachic, tonic aphrodisiac agent, treatment of back and spine problems, pus removal.2 

How to use hadjod? 

Hadjod is used in hadjod tablets, capsules, powder and drops.2 

Is a hadjod good for bone protection? 

Yes, hadjod has bone protective activity. Hadjod’s protective action is thought to be due to its steroidal content, which functions as phytoestrogens to prevent or minimise bone loss and suppress bone reabsorption caused by estrogen deficiency.2

Also Read: Cranberry: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects & More!

References: 

  1. Mukherjee T, Saha N, Palbag S. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of ayurvedic plant hadjod-Cissus quadrangularis L. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2016; 7(4): 78-83. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305356131_ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY_PHYTOCHEMISTRY_AND_PHARMACOLOGY_OF_AYURVEDIC_PLANT_HADJOD_CISSUS_QUADRANGULARIS_L
  2. Bafna PS, Patil PH, Maru SK, Mutha RE. Cissus quadrangularis L: A comprehensive multidisciplinary review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2021; 279: 114355. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34181958/Rex
  3. M C, Ravi L. A review on Cissus quadrangularis L. as herbal medicine. Ind J Natural Products Resources. 2020; 11(3): 155-164.  http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/55610/1/IJNPR%2011%283%29%20155-164.
  4. pdfAustin A. A Systemic Review on the Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological and Clinical aspects of Edible stemmed vine, Cissus quadrangularis L. Am J Clin Res Rev; 2020; 4:18 https://escipub.com/Articles/AJCRR/AJCRR-2020-07-1705.pdf

Also Read: Majuphal: Uses, Benefits, Precautions & More!

Disclaimer:

The information provided here is for educational/awareness purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for medical treatment by a healthcare professional and should not be relied upon to diagnose or treat any medical condition. The reader should consult a registered medical practitioner to determine the appropriateness of the information and before consuming any medication. PharmEasy does not provide any guarantee or warranty (express or implied) regarding the accuracy, adequacy, completeness, legality, reliability or usefulness of the information; and disclaims any liability arising thereof.

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