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Hibiscus Tea: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects by Dr. Smita Barode

By Dr Smita Barode +2 more

Introduction: 

Ruby red-coloured hibiscus tea is often consumed as an alternative to regular tea and coffee. It is refreshing and has a tangy flavour. Hibiscus is found in several warm countries like India, Thailand, Vietnam, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Sudan, Egypt, Philippines, and Indonesia. The main producers of hibiscus are Mexico, Sudan, Thailand, Egypt, and China. The scientific name of the hibiscus is Hibiscus sabdariffa, and it belongs to the family Malvaceae. Hibiscus is commonly known as ‘roselle’ or ‘red sorrel.’  The fleshy red calyx of hibiscus is often used to make hibiscus tea. Hibiscus is a caffeine-free herbal tea that tastes like berries.1 Let us look at some hibiscus tea health benefits.

hibiscus tea benefits

Nutritional Value of Hibiscus Tea: 

Brewed hibiscus tea nutrition is as follows:  

Nutritional Component Value 
Water 99.6 g 
Iron 0.08 mg 
Potassium 20 mg 
Calcium 8 mg 
Phosphorous 1 mg 
Magnesium 3 mg 
Zinc 0.04 mg 
Potassium 20 mg 
Manganese 0.477 mg 
Sodium 4 mg 
Vitamin B3 (niacin) 0.04 mg 
Vitamin B9 (folate) 1 µg 
Choline 0.4 mg 

Table 1: Nutritional Value of hibiscus tea2 

Furthermore, hibiscus has several bioactive compounds like anthocyanin, organic acids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, carotene, and many more.1 

Properties of Hibiscus Tea: 

Several studies have shown that hibiscus tea properties may be as follows:  

  • It may lower cholesterol levels 
  • It may lower blood pressure  
  • It may lower blood sugar levels  
  • It may act as an anti-microbial agent 
  • It may be an antioxidant  
  • It may help to manage weight  
  • It may act as an anti-cancer agent 
  • It may reduce inflammation 1 

Did you know?

  • Hibiscus tea has been found to be effective in lowering blood pressure in both prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. source: Ncbi
  • Hibiscus tea has been shown to have anticancer, antibacterial, and anti-oxidant properties. source: Ncbi
  • Hibiscus tea has been found to improve lipid profile and inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation. source: Ncbi
  • Herbal medicine, such as hibiscus tea, is being increasingly used as an alternative to chemical medication for hypertension. source: Ncbi

Potential Uses of Hibiscus Tea for Overall Health 

Some of the potential hibiscus tea uses are: 

1. Potential use of hibiscus tea for lowering blood sugar levels 

A study by Jamrozik et al. in 2022 showed that the polyphenols in hibiscus tea might lower blood sugar levels by inhibiting enzymes like α-glucosidase and α-amylase. These enzymes are responsible for digesting carbohydrates and increasing glucose levels after consuming food.3 However, further studies on humans are required to check if hibiscus tea may help to lower blood sugar levels. Therefore, you must check your blood sugar levels regularly and immediately consult the doctor in case of abnormal sugar levels. 

2. Potential use of hibiscus tea for lowering blood pressure 

A study by McKay et al. in 2009 showed that flavonoids like delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside present in hibiscus tea might reduce blood pressure. Hibiscus is a vasorelaxant as it relaxes the tension on the walls of blood vessels; therefore, it may lower blood pressure.4 However, more studies on humans are required to check if hibiscus tea may lower blood pressure. Therefore, you must check your blood pressure and consult your doctor in case of abnormal blood pressure. 

3. Potential use of hibiscus tea for lowering cholesterol 

A study by Sanadheera et al. in 2021 showed that hibiscus tea might reduce bad cholesterol levels (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein). Additionally, it may elevate good cholesterol levels (high-density lipoprotein). This may be due to the antioxidant property of hibiscus tea.5 However, more studies on humans are yet to be done to check if hibiscus tea may affect cholesterol levels. Therefore, you must check your cholesterol levels and consult your doctor in case of abnormal cholesterol levels. 

4. Potential use of hibiscus tea for reducing inflammation 

A study by Raduan et al. in 2013 showed that saponins, flavonoids, and plant sterols might reduce inflammation. Hibiscus tea may inhibit cyclooxygenase. Cyclooxygenase is an enzyme that elevates the levels of prostaglandins (lipids responsible for inflammation).6 However, more studies on humans are yet to be done to check if hibiscus tea may reduce inflammation. You must consult your doctor if you suspect inflammation in your body. 

5. Potential use of hibiscus tea for weight management 

A study by F.J. Alarcon-Aguilar et al. in 2007 on mice showed that anthocyanin, cyanidin, and delphinidin in hibiscus tea might reduce weight. Hibiscus tea may reduce weight by reducing the levels of cholesterol and by inhibiting the enzymes gastric and pancreatic lipase responsible for increasing the fat levels in the body.7 However, this is the result of animal studies; more studies on humans are required. You must consult your dietician before making any essential changes in your diet. 

6. Potential use of hibiscus tea for microbial infections 

A study by Jamrozik et al. in 2022 showed that hibiscus tea might possess antibacterial and antifungal activity. Hibiscus tea may possess activity against Streptococcus mutans, a bacterium from the oral cavity, Schistosoma mansoni, and Campylobacter species. In addition, hibiscus tea may reduce the formation of aflatoxin, a toxin produced by fungi.1 However, more studies on humans are required to check if hibiscus tea may be beneficial for microbial infections. Therefore, you must consult your doctor if you suspect a microbial infection. 

7. Potential use of hibiscus tea for cancer 

A study by Lin et al. in 2011 showed that hibiscus tea might act against cancer. The polyphenols like catechin may be an antioxidant and act against free radicals. Additionally, the polyphenols may inhibit the prostate tumour and deactivate the cancerous cells.8 However, more studies on humans are required to check the anti-cancer effect of hibiscus tea. Therefore, you must immediately consult your doctor if you suspect it instead of self-medicating. 

Though studies show the benefits of hibiscus tea in various conditions, these are insufficient, and further studies are to establish the true extent of the benefits of hibiscus tea on human health. 

According to the multiple studies I have read, hibiscus has been found to promote liver health. The extract of hibiscus may have protective effects on the liver against various toxins, which may be attributed to its strong antioxidant properties. These findings suggest that incorporating hibiscus tea into one’s diet may contribute to maintaining a healthy liver.

Dr. Siddharth Gupta, B.A.M.S, M.D (Ayu)

Other Benefits of Hibiscus Tea :

1. Hibiscus tea benefits for male:

Hibiscus tea is rich in antioxidants, it supports heart health by reducing blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Its anti-inflammatory properties aid in maintaining prostate health, while the abundance of vitamin C boosts the immune system. Additionally, the tea’s potential to enhance blood circulation contributes to overall vitality. Regular consumption of hibiscus tea provides a natural and refreshing way for men to promote their health and well-being.

2. Hibiscus tea benefits for female : 

Hibiscus tea benefits periods as its anti-inflammatory properties can be particularly beneficial for menstrual discomfort. . Rich in vitamin C, hibiscus tea promotes radiant skin and boosts the immune system, improving women’s overall well-being. Incorporating hibiscus tea into a daily routine provides a natural and delicious way for women to nurture their health

3. Hibiscus tea benefits for hair : 

Enriched with vitamins and antioxidants, hibiscus tea nourishes the scalp, promoting healthy hair growth. Its natural moisturizing properties help combat dryness and frizz. Hibiscus tea’s potential to strengthen hair roots and prevent split ends makes it a valuable addition to a hair care routine. Regular use of hibiscus tea may revitalize the hair, lending it a vibrant and rejuvenated appearance, making it an excellent choice for those seeking natural and holistic hair care

4. Hibiscus tea benefits for skin : 

Hibiscus tea proves to be a skincare elixir with its various benefits. Bursting with antioxidants, it helps combat free radicals, promoting a youthful and radiant complexion. The tea’s natural exfoliating properties contribute to smoother skin texture, while its anti-inflammatory attributes soothe irritations and redness. Rich in vitamin C, hibiscus tea aids in collagen production, fostering skin elasticity and minimizing the appearance of fine lines. Regular consumption or topical application of hibiscus tea may leave the skin with a healthy glow, making it a refreshing and holistic addition to any skincare routine.

How to Use Hibiscus Tea? 

Here’s a quick and easy hibiscus tea recipe to follow:

  • To prepare hibiscus tea, collect the flowers, wash them thoroughly, and dry them. 
  • Then, peel off the calyx (the whorl that encloses the petals) and store them in an air-tight container. 
  • Take some dried calyx and crush it with a wooden roller. Keep some water for boiling and pour it into a mug. 
  • Put the dry calyx in a net or a tea bag and steep in the water for a few minutes. 
  • You can enjoy the benefits of drinking hibiscus tea by either adding sugar or lemon to enhance the flavour1 

You must visit a doctor before taking hibiscus tea in large quantities or any herbal products. Do not discontinue or replace an ongoing treatment of modern medicine or herbal preparation without consulting a doctor. 

I stumbled upon some exciting research. In studies, hibiscus tea has shown strong antiviral effects against both H5N1 avian influenza virus and other strains. It could potentially reduce the amount of the virus in laboratory tests and inhibit its replication. This suggests that hibiscus tea might be a valuable natural remedy for dealing with influenza.

Dr. Rajeev Singh, BAMS

Also Read: Raspberry Leaf Tea: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects & More!

Side Effects of Hibiscus Tea 

Studies have shown that hibiscus tea is considered safe when consumed adequately.1 A few hibiscus tea side effects may be gas, upset stomach, and constipation.9 If you notice any reaction to consuming hibiscus tea, seek immediate medical attention. Consult your ayurvedic physician who has prescribed it to you. 

1. Estrogen Levels:

  • Hibiscus tea can have side effects on estrogen level as it contains compounds that may influence estrogen levels in the body.
  • Individuals with hormonal imbalances or those undergoing hormone-related treatments should exercise caution.

2. Effects on Kidneys:

  • Excessive consumption of hibiscus tea effects on kidneys as it may  increase oxalates, potentially contributing to kidney stone formation.
  • Individuals with kidney issues should consult a healthcare provider before regularly consuming hibiscus tea.

3. Gas, Upset Stomach, and Constipation:

  • Overconsumption of hibiscus tea may cause gas, bloating, and, in some cases, dehydration leading to constipation.
  • Start with small amounts and stay hydrated to minimize these effects.

4. General Recommendations:

  • Enjoy hibiscus tea in moderation to reduce the risk of adverse effects.
  • Individuals with concerns or pre-existing conditions should consult healthcare professionals before making it a regular part of their diet.

As a doctor, I would like to highlight the importance of being cautious about excessive consumption of hibiscus tea or fruit teas containing hibiscus petals. Based on certain findings, it appears that the tea infusion from hibiscus petals might increase the body burden of aluminium. This is particularly relevant for individuals who are at a high risk, such as pregnant women and those with kidney problems. Therefore, such individuals should exercise caution and avoid excessive intake of hibiscus tea.

Dr. Smita barode, B.A.M.S, M.S.

Precautions to Take with Hibiscus Tea 

The following precautions shall be taken before consuming hibiscus tea: 

  • Pregnant and breast-feeding women should be cautious before consuming hibiscus tea9 
  • It may not be easy to control blood sugar levels after surgery by consuming hibiscus tea. Therefore, you must avoid drinking hibiscus tea a few days before surgery.9 

It is advised to consult your doctor before consuming hibiscus tea if you have any pre-existing diseases. 

Also Read: Spearmint Tea Benefits: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects & More!

Interactions with Other Drugs: 

Hibiscus tea may interact with the following drugs 

  • It may interact with chloroquine, a drug used for malaria. 9 
  • Hibiscus tea may interact with diclofenac, a drug used to relieve pain. 9 
  • Hibiscus tea may increase the levels of losartan, a medicine used to treat blood pressure. 9 

You must consult a doctor before taking hibiscus tea if you are undergoing medical treatment. 

Also Read: Genmaicha Tea: Discovering Its Benefits and Unique Flavor

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): 

What are the uses of hibiscus tea? 

Hibiscus tea helps lower blood sugar levels, cholesterol, and blood pressure. It may reduce inflammation, help to manage weight, and act against microbial infections. In addition, it may act as an antioxidant and reduce cancer risk.1,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, you must visit your doctor if you have any of the mentioned conditions instead of self-medicating. 

What are hibiscus tea side effects? 

Hibiscus tea is considered safe when consumed adequately.1 A few side effects of hibiscus tea may be gas, upset in the stomach, and constipation. You must immediately visit your doctor if you experience any effects after consuming green tea. 

What are the benefits of hibiscus tea for lowering blood pressure? 

There is a possibility that hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure. Flavonoids present in hibiscus tea might reduce blood pressure. Hibiscus is a vasorelaxant as it relaxes the tension on the walls of blood vessels.4 However, you must consult your doctor in case of abnormal blood pressure. 

Is hibiscus tea good for diabetes? 

Yes, hibiscus tea is good for diabetes as its polyphenols may reduce blood sugar levels.3 However, you must check your blood sugar levels and consult your doctor in case of abnormal blood sugar levels. 

What precautions must be taken before consuming hibiscus tea? 

Pregnant and breastfeeding women should be cautious before consuming hibiscus tea. It may be difficult to control blood sugar levels after surgery by consuming hibiscus tea. Therefore, you must avoid drinking hibiscus tea a few days before surgery. 

What is hibiscus tea good for?

Hibiscus tea is known for its potential health benefits, including lowering blood pressure, supporting heart health, and providing antioxidant properties. Additionally, it is often enjoyed for its refreshing taste and potential contributions to overall well-being.

What vitamins are present in hibiscus tea?

Hibiscus tea contains various vitamins, including vitamin C, which contributes to immune support and skin health. Additionally, it provides traces of vitamin A and vitamin B, enhancing its nutritional profile.

What antioxidants are in hibiscus tea?

Hibiscus tea boasts a rich antioxidant profile, featuring anthocyanins that contribute to its vibrant color and help combat oxidative stress. These antioxidants may provide potential health benefits, such as supporting heart health and reducing inflammation.

Is hibiscus tea safe during pregnancy?

While hibiscus tea is generally safe, pregnant individuals should exercise caution due to its potential to lower blood pressure and its association with uterine stimulation. Consulting with a healthcare professional before consuming hibiscus tea during pregnancy is advisable.

Is hibiscus tea acidic?

Yes, hibiscus tea is slightly acidic due to its natural compounds. However, it’s generally considered safe for most people, but individuals with acid sensitivity may want to consume it in moderation.

Is hibiscus tea good for kidneys?

Hibiscus tea may have potential benefits for kidney health as it has been associated with lowering blood pressure and reducing oxidative stress. However, individuals with pre-existing kidney conditions should consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating it into their diet.

Is hibiscus tea good for weight loss?

Hibiscus tea may support weight loss by aiding in fat reduction and potentially curbing calorie intake. However, individual responses vary, and it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice on incorporating hibiscus tea into a weight loss regimen.

Is hibiscus tea good for diabetics?

Hibiscus tea may benefit individuals with diabetes by helping to lower blood pressure and improving lipid profiles. However, it’s crucial for those with diabetes to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the suitability and appropriate consumption of hibiscus tea in their diet.

Is hibiscus tea good for periods?

While some believe hibiscus tea may help relieve menstrual cramps and promote a healthy menstrual cycle due to its reported anti-inflammatory properties, scientific evidence is limited. Individuals seeking relief for period-related discomfort should consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice.

Is hibiscus tea good for gastritis?

Hibiscus tea might aggravate gastritis symptoms for some individuals due to its natural acidity. It’s advisable for those with gastritis to consult with a healthcare professional to determine whether hibiscus tea is suitable for their specific condition.

Is hibiscus tea contain caffeine?

Hibiscus tea is caffeine-free, making it a suitable choice for individuals looking to avoid or limit caffeine intake. It offers a refreshing option for those seeking a beverage without the stimulating effects of caffeine.

Is hibiscus tea good for pcos?

Hibiscus tea may be beneficial for individuals with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) as it could potentially help regulate blood pressure and manage insulin resistance. However, individual responses vary, and consulting with a healthcare professional for personalized advice is recommended for those with PCOS.

Is hibiscus tea good for hair growth?

While hibiscus tea is rich in antioxidants that may promote scalp health, scientific evidence on its direct impact on hair growth is limited. For optimal hair growth, it’s crucial to maintain a well-balanced diet and consider consulting with a healthcare professional for personalized advice.

Can I drink hibiscus tea in morning?

Absolutely, you can enjoy hibiscus tea in the morning. Its caffeine-free nature makes it a refreshing and suitable beverage to start your day, offering a burst of flavor without the stimulating effects of caffeine.

Can I drink hibiscus tea while breastfeeding?

While hibiscus tea is generally considered safe, breastfeeding individuals should consume it in moderation due to limited research on its effects during lactation. It’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before including hibiscus tea in your diet while breastfeeding.

Can I drink hibiscus tea on empty stomach?

Certainly, drinking hibiscus tea on an empty stomach is generally fine for most people. However, individual reactions vary, so it’s wise to monitor how your body responds. If you experience any discomfort, consider consulting with a healthcare professional for personalized advice.

Can you eat hibiscus tea leaves?

Consuming hibiscus tea leaves is generally not recommended, as they can be tough and have a strong, concentrated flavor. If you’re considering incorporating hibiscus into your diet, it’s advisable to seek guidance from a healthcare professional to ensure safe and suitable consumption.

Can I drink hibiscus tea while fasting?

Yes, you can drink hibiscus tea while fasting. Its lack of calories and potential health benefits make it a suitable beverage during fasting periods. However, individual responses vary, so it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional, especially if you have specific health concerns or conditions.

Can dogs have hibiscus tea?

It’s not advisable to give hibiscus tea to dogs as it may lead to digestive problems or potential toxicity. Seeking advice from a veterinarian before introducing any new foods or beverages, including hibiscus tea, is crucial for the health and safety of your dog.

Does hibiscus tea lower blood pressure?

Yes, hibiscus tea is associated with potential blood pressure-lowering effects due to its natural compounds. However, individual responses may vary, and it’s recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice, especially for those on blood pressure medication.

Is hibiscus tea good for gut health?

Hibiscus tea may support gut health due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, individual reactions vary, and it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice on incorporating hibiscus tea for gut health.

What does hibiscus tea taste like?

Hibiscus tea boasts a unique flavor profile characterized by its tart and slightly fruity notes. Its vibrant crimson hue complements its refreshing taste, offering a delightful balance of sweetness and acidity.

Is hibiscus tea good for skin?

Hibiscus tea is considered beneficial for the skin due to its antioxidant-rich composition, potentially supporting a healthy complexion and combating free radicals. However, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice on integrating hibiscus tea into your skincare routine.

Is hibiscus tea good for fatty liver?

Hibiscus tea may offer potential benefits for a fatty liver as it has been linked to liver health support and lipid metabolism. Nevertheless, it’s crucial to seek guidance from a healthcare professional for personalized advice tailored to individual health conditions and needs.

Can I drink hibiscus tea everyday?

Drinking hibiscus tea daily can be part of a healthy routine, as it may contribute to antioxidant intake and hydration. However, individual tolerance varies, so consulting with a healthcare professional is advisable to ensure it aligns with your specific health conditions and dietary needs.

Is hibiscus tea good for acid reflux?

Hibiscus tea is often recommended for acid reflux as it is low in acidity and may have anti-inflammatory effects on the digestive tract. However, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice based on your specific health conditions and needs.

 Is hibiscus tea good for thyroid?

While hibiscus tea is generally considered safe, excessive consumption may interfere with thyroid function due to its iodine content. It’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice, especially if you have thyroid issues, to ensure it aligns with your specific health needs.

Can hibiscus tea be taken at night?

Yes, hibiscus tea can be consumed at night. It is caffeine-free and may promote relaxation, making it a suitable choice before bedtime. However, individual responses may vary, so it’s advisable to monitor how your body reacts to it.

Can hibiscus tea irritate the bladder?

Hibiscus tea is mildly acidic and may potentially irritate the bladder in some individuals. If you have a history of bladder issues, it’s recommended to monitor your body’s response and consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice.

Can hibiscus tea make you sleepy?

Hibiscus tea is caffeine-free and contains compounds that may have a mild sedative effect, potentially promoting relaxation and aiding in sleep. However, individual responses vary, so it’s advisable to observe how your body reacts and consider consulting with a healthcare professional for personalized guidance.

Can hibiscus tea cause bleeding?

While hibiscus tea is generally safe, it contains compounds that may have mild anticoagulant effects. Consuming large amounts could potentially contribute to bleeding issues, so individuals on blood-thinning medications or with bleeding disorders should consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating it into their diet.

References: 

  1. Singh P, Khan M, Hailemariam H. Nutritional and health importance of Hibiscus sabdariffa: a review and indication for research needs. J. Nutr. Health Food Eng. 2017;6(5):00212. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pragya-Singh-24/publication/319999247_Nutritional_and_Health_Importance_of_Hibiscus_Sabdariffa_A_Review_and_Indication_for_Research_Needs/links/59c64a92458515548f326de6/Nutritional-and-Health-Importance-of-Hibiscus-Sabdariffa-A-Review-and-Indication-for-Research-Needs.pdf 
  1. Beverages, tea, hibiscus, brewed [Internet]. FoodData Central. [cited 2022Nov28]. Available from: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/171946/nutrients 
  1. Jamrozik D, Borymska W, Kaczmarczyk-Żebrowska I. Hibiscus sabdariffa in Diabetes Prevention and Treatment—Does It Work? An Evidence-Based Review. Foods. 2022 Jul 19;11(14):2134. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/11/14/2134/pdf 
  1. McKay DL, Chen CO, Saltzman E, Blumberg JB. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. The Journal of nutrition. 2010 Feb 1;140(2):298-303. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-abstract/140/2/298/4600320 
  1. Sanadheera S, Subasinghe D, Solangaarachchi MN, Suraweera M, Suraweera NY, Tharangika N. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.(red Hibiscus) Tea, Can It Be Used as A Home-Remedy to Control Diabetes and Hypercholesterolemia?. Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry. 2021 Jul 27;10(1):59-65. Available from: https://www.sciencebiology.org/index.php/BIOMEDICH/article/view/126 
  1. Raduan SZ, Abdul Aziz MW, Roslida AH, Zakaria ZA, Zuraini A, Hakim MN. Anti-inflammatory effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis var. alba ethanol extracts. International journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. 2013;5(4):754-62. Available from: https://ir.unimas.my/11330/1/7844.pdf 
  1. Alarcon-Aguilar FJ, Zamilpa A, Perez-Garcia MD, Almanza-Perez JC, Romero-Nunez E, Campos-Sepulveda EA, Vazquez-Carrillo LI, Roman-Ramos R. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on obesity in MSG mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2007 Oct 8;114(1):66-71. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874107003637 
  1. Lin HH, Chan KC, Sheu JY, Hsuan SW, Wang CJ, Chen JH. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf induces apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Food Chemistry. 2012 May 15;132(2):880-91. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814611016396 
  1. Hibiscus Sabdariffa: Medlineplus supplements [Internet]. MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine; [cited 2022Nov28]. Available from: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/211.html 

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