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M k jain

Is it useful Nirgundi for COPD ASTHAMA

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Nirgundi: Benefits, Uses, Side Effects & More!

By Dr Anuja Bodhare +2 more

Introduction:  

Nirgundi is an Ayurvedic medicine made from the dried leaves of Vitex negundo (Family Verbenaceae), a large aromatic shrub or small tree up to 4.5 m height, common throughout the country to an altitude of 1500 m in the outer Himalayas.1 It is commonly known as Five leaved chaste trees, which is a large family of herbs, shrubs and trees, comprising of about 75 genera and nearly 2500 species.2

Common names of Vitex Negundo include Nirgundi and Sindhuvara in Sanskrit. Nirgundi is already in clinical use in traditional systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha for the management of pain, headache, inflammation, leukoderma, enlargement of spleen, rheumatoid arthritis, gonorrhoea, bronchitis, fever, cold and cough.2 The leaves of V.negundo have been reported to possess pesticidal and antifungal properties.2 

nirgundi benefits

Chemical Constituents of Nirgundi Plant: 

Nirgundi contains atleast 0.25 percent of negundoside and 1.0 percent of agnuside when assayed.1 The following table contains the chemical components present in the Nirgundi plant: 

Sr.No Part of Nirgundi plant Chemical constituents  
Leaves   Vitamin-C, artemetin, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, sabenine, globulol, spathulenol, β-farnesene, farnesol, carotene, casticin, 5-hydroxy-6,7,8, 4′-tetramethoxy (gardenin B), linalool, stearic acid, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,3′, 4′-pentamethoxy flavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,3′, 4′-tetramethoxy flavones, betulinic acid, ursolic acid. 
Seeds  Î²-sitosterol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 5-oxyisophthalic acid, artemetin, vitedoin A, vitedoamine A, vitedoin B, 2β,3α-diacetoxyoleana-5, 12-dien-28-oic acid, 3β-acetoxyolean-12-en-27-oic acid, n-tritriacontane, n-hentriacontane, n-pentatriacontane, ß- sitosterol 
Stem and bark 3,6,7,3′,4′-Pentamethoxy-5-Oglucopyranosylrhamnoside, vitexin cafeate, 4′-O-methyl myricetin- 3-O-[4′-O-β-D-galactosyl]-β-Dgalactopyranoside, Î²-amyrin, epifriedelinol, oleanolic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, β-sitosterol. 
Roots Vitexin and isovitexi, vitexoside, negundin A, negundin B, 6-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2-naphthaledehyde, 2β,3α-diacetoxyoleana-5,12-dien-28-oic acid. 
Table 1: Phytochemicals and nutrients in Nirgundi 3 

Therapeutic Uses of Nirgundi:  

The leaves of nirgundi have antibacterial, laxative, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, hypoglycaemic, and anti-inflammatory properties.2 The roots, barks, and fruits too have medicinal properties. Roots of nirgundi are one of the ingredients of the herbal formulation called ‘Dashamularishta’, used in the management of colitis, dysentery, diarrhoea, flatulence, fever, vomiting, and colic.2 The leaves contain alkaloid nisindine, flavonoids like flavones, luteolin-7-glycoside an essential oil, and constituents like vitamin C,  and carotene that account for different biological actions .2  

The Sanskrit word for Vitex negundo, a plant commonly known as nirgundi, carries a meaningful translation. ‘Nirgundi’ literally translates to ‘that which protects the body from diseases.’ This herb holds significance in Ayurvedic medicine, as it is mentioned in all of the Ayurvedic Samhitas, which are ancient texts that form the foundation of Ayurveda.

Dr. Siddharth Gupta, B.A.M.S, M.D (Ayu)

Did you know?

Benefits of Nirgundi

1. Benefits of Nirgundi for Infections :  

  •  Nirgundi essential oil showed  antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa.2
  • The phytoconstituents d-guaiene, germacrene D, and hexadecenoic acid found in nirgundi are responsible for this anti-bacterial activity.2  
  • The leavd extracts possesses a new flavone glycoside, which has antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. 2- 3 

2. Benefits of Nirgundi for Pain:  

  • The anti-inflammatory and pain suppressing activities of fresh leaves of nirgundi are attributed to prostaglandin synthesis inhibition.2
  • When tested in an animal model, the pain relieving activity of extract of V. negundo was compared with that of aspirin and meperidine.
  • The study concluded that the Nirgundi leaves showed strong analgesic activity and may be used as an adjuvant therapy with standard analgesics.3 

3. Benefits of Nirgundi for Liver:  

  • The extracts of V. negundo seeds decreased the serum levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase.3
  • The alcoholic seed extract also showed protective action on the liver against Carbon-tetrachloride(CCL4)-induced liver toxicity.3 

4. Benefits of Nirgundi for Arthritis:  

  • The heated leaf is used for managing rheumatoid arthritis-related pain and sprains.
  • The oil prepared from the leaves can also be used.3  

5. Benefits of Nirgundi for Lungs:  

Nirgundi root decoction can be used for managing bronchitis and asthma.2-3  

6. Benefits of Nirgundi for Diabetes: 

The leaf extracts of Vitex Negundo were reported for their anti-hyperglycemic activity in animals.2,3 

7. Benefits of Nirgundi for Wounds: 

Washing the wounds with nirgundi leaves extract can aid in cleaning infected ulcers.3 

8. Benefits of Nirgundi for Skin: 

  • Nirgundi leaf juice may be beneficial in managing bacterial and parasitic skin infections.
  • Nirgundi seeds are used to deal with skin diseases and leprosy.4 

9. Benefits of Nirgundi as an Antioxidant: 

  • The water-soluble constituents of Vitex negundo possess potent antioxidant activities.
  • Human studies might demonstrate its efficacy in humans.2,3 

Also Read: Shilajit – Uses, Benefits & Side Effects

Nirgundi, a versatile plant, has an amazing mosquito-repellent quality! During the rainy season, the leaves of nirgundi are burned in a fire, that may create a smoky shield that keeps mosquitoes and insects away from both animals and humans.

Dr. Rajeev Singh, BAMS

How to Use Nirgundi Plant?  

The following parts of the Nirgundi plant can be used: 

Leaves: 

Nirgundi leaves can be boiled with water and the vapours can be inhaled.3 Nirgundi leaves can be ground to a paste and applied on the forehead to relieve headache.3 

Flowers:

Flower extracts of Nirgundi may be used in the management of fever, diarrhoea, and liver complaints.3 

Seeds: 

The seeds can be used with sugarcane or vinegar for the management of swellings. Powdered seeds can be used in the management of spermatorrhea and serve as an aphrodisiac when used along with dry ginger and milk.4 The seeds can be made into a paste and used with salt and pepper for applying on fractures.3 

Roots: 

Root powder, the tincture can be used for managing dysentery.3 The powdered root is used for anthelmintic property.3 Root extract can be dissolved in tender coconut water for a week to suppress kidney problems.3 

Fruit:

The dried fruit powder can be taken orally with roasted common salt and warm water for dealing with menstrual disorders, urinary disorders, and indigestion.3 

Your Ayurvedic physician will prescribe you the form and dose as per your needs. 

Also Read: Shatavari – Uses, Benefits & Side Effects

Dry nirgundi leaves have a traditional use of being placed with stored woollen garments. This is because the leaves have properties that repel insects and worms, which may help protect the woollen items from damage.

Dr. Smita barode, B.A.M.S, M.S.

Precautions to Take With Nirgundi: 

Keep the following points in mind: 

  • People with hormone-dependent conditions such as endometriosis, fibroids, or cancers of the breast, uterus, and prostate should not take Nirgundi.  
  • It is not recommended during pregnancy and breastfeeding mothers for lack of safety studies.4 

Also Read: Kaunch Beej – Uses, Benefits & Side Effects

Frequently Asked Questions: 

How to use Nirgundi leaves? 

Nirgundi leaves can be used as powder, juice, extract, and paste. The primary process involves boiling or crushing the leaves for chemical extractions.2 

Can I use Nirgundi leaves for my skin allergies? 

The ethanolic extract of V. negundo showed antiallergic activity against mast cells and inhibited oedema (swelling).2,3 Thus, may be useful in dealing with skin allergies once large-scale human studies are done. 

Can I use Nirgundi for fatty liver? 

Nirgundi has shown and thus, may be used for its protective action on liver as it prevents inflammation. The extract of seeds can be used to lower elevated liver enzymes and prevent liver damage.2-4 

Can I use Nirgundi for chronic fever and body pain? 

Nirgundi leaf extracts show high fever reducing and pain relieving activities. They may be useful for managing chronic fever and body pain once more human studies are available.2-4 

Can I use Nirgundi for abdominal gas and distention? 

Nirgundi has carminative action, which can help deal with gas and digestive problems. In addition, the decoction of juice from the leaves too may aid in managing digestive issues.2-4 

Where to store the Nirgundi leaves or extract?

Nirgundi leaves should be stored in a dry airtight container, and they should be kept away from direct sunlight.1 

Also Read: Chandraprabha Vati – Uses, Benefits, Side Effects & Precautions

References:  

  1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 1st edition, Part I, Volume IX. Delhi (IN): Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy. Monographs (Extracts). Nirgundi.  
  1. Kantesh M Basalingappa, Vinutha T, Gopenath TS, et.al. Medicinal Values and Pharmacological Activities of Vitex Negundo LInn.  Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020. II (1) 7579-7589. ISSN –2230-7346. 
  1. Harikesh Mourya, Vikas Rao. The Favorable Role of Alkaloids from Vitex negundo in the Management of Human Ailments. Annals of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2019, Volume 1. Article 1007. Available from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301516186_Vitex_negundo_Medicinal_Values_Biological_Activities_Toxicity_Studies_Phytopharmacological_Actions [PDF]  
  1. SC Ahuja, Siddharth Ahuja, Uma Ahuja. Nirgundi (VItex negundo) – Nature’s GIft to Mankind. Asian Agri-History Vol.19. No 1. 2015 (5-32). [Internet] [Available from – https://www.asianagrihistory.org/pdf/volume19/nirgundi-natures-gift-to-mankind.pdf  

Also Read: Tejpatta – Uses, Benefits & Precautions

Disclaimer:

The information provided here is for educational/awareness purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for medical treatment by a healthcare professional and should not be relied upon to diagnose or treat any medical condition. The reader should consult a registered medical practitioner to determine the appropriateness of the information and before consuming any medication. PharmEasy does not provide any guarantee or warranty (express or implied) regarding the accuracy, adequacy, completeness, legality, reliability or usefulness of the information; and disclaims any liability arising thereof.

Links and product recommendations in the information provided here are advertisements of third-party products available on the website. PharmEasy does not make any representation on the accuracy or suitability of such products/services. Advertisements do not influence the editorial decisions or content. The information in this blog is subject to change without notice. The authors and administrators reserve the right to modify, add, or remove content without notification. It is your responsibility to review this disclaimer regularly for any changes.

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