Introduction: 

Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) is a species of Syzygium (L.) Skeels are one of the most well-known species and are widely farmed. Jambolan, Indian blackberry, jamun, black plum, java plum, Malabar plum, Portuguese plum, purple plum, damson plum and Jamaica are common names for jamun. The tree is found throughout the Indian subcontinent and many other South Asian countries including Burma, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. Buddhists in southern Asia revere the tree, and it is usually planted near Hindu temples since it is considered sacred to Lord Krishna. 


Jambolan is a vast, highly foliaceous evergreen tree with thick greyish-brown bark that exfoliates in woody scales. The wood is whitish in colour and durable. The leaves are leathery, 6 to 12 centimeters long, and oblong-ovate to elliptical in shape with a broad tip. Flowers are round or oblong in shape, aromatic, greenish-white, and come in clusters of a few or 10 to 40. The fruits are oblong, 1.5 to 3.5 centimeters long, dark-purple or black, and delicious, with a single big seed inside.

Did you know?

  • Jamun has been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, including diarrhea, dysentery, and stomach ulcers. [source: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Jamun extract has shown promising results in reducing blood sugar levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes. [source: pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Jamun has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to improve digestion and relieve digestive disorders. [source: ayurvedanama.org]
  • Jamun has been found to have antimicrobial properties, inhibiting the growth of certain bacteria and fungi. [source: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The polyphenols found in jamun have been shown to have neuroprotective effects, potentially benefiting brain health. [source: Frontiers in Pharmacology]

Chemical Composition of Jamun

Anthocyanins, ellagic acid, glucoside, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin are among the compounds found in jambolan. The alkaloid jambosine and the glycoside antimellin or jambolin are said to be present in the seeds.1 

Nutritional Value of Jamun: 

The nutritional content fount per 100 g of edible jamun fruit is:2 

Nutrients Value 
Proteins 0.7 – 0.13 g 
Fats 0.15 – 0.3 g 
Crude fibre 0.30 – 0.9 g 
Carbohydrate 14 g 
Calcium 8.30 – 15 mg 
Magnesium 35 mg 
Phosphorus 15 – 16.20 mg 
Iron 1.20 – 1.62 mg 
Sodium 26.2 mg 
Potassium 55 mg 
Copper 0.23 mg 
Sulfur 13 mg 
Vitamin A 8 IU 
Thiamine 0.01 – 0.03 mg 
Riboflavin 0.009 – 0.01 mg 
Niacin 0.20 – 0.29 mg 
Ascorbic acid 5.70 – 18 mg 
Folic acid 3 mcg 
Table 1: Nutrients found in Jamun fruit2 

I find it interesting that Jamun wood is known for its strength and resistance to water and termites. This means that it can withstand moisture and insect damage, making it a durable and long-lasting material.

Dr. Siddharth Gupta, MD

Therapeutic Uses of Jamun: 

Various parts of the Jamun plant have therapeutic properties are listed below.1  

Jamun Bark:  

  • astringent to the bowels  
  • anthelmintic  
  • digestive  
  • asthma 
  • antiulcer 
  • antidysentric 
  • blood purifier 

Jamun Fruit: 

  • astringent to the bowels 
  • astringent to the mouth 
  • stomachic 
  • diuretic  
  • antidiabetic.  

Jamun Seed: 

  • antidiabetic 

Leaves ash: 

  • gums strengthening  

Vinegar made from the juice of ripe fruit: 

  • stomachic  
  • diuretic  
  • astringent in treating diarrhoea.   

Benefits of Jamun: 

Benefits of Jamun for Diabetes: 

  • In diabetic treated rats, the antidiabetic activity of jamun seed powder was observed as an increase in body weight and improvement in peak blood glucose levels.
  • In rats, the effects of oral administration of extract of jamun seed powder on body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, and pancreatic islets were investigated.
  • The increase in the secretion of insulin from β-cells of the islets of Langerhans was proposed as a possible mechanism of jamun seeds in reducing blood sugar levels.3 

PharmEasy Recommends: Everherb Karela Jamun Juice 

Benefits of Jamun for Cholesterol: 

  • In rats, the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of jamun seed extract was seen in plasma, kidney and liver tissues.
  • Treatment with jamun seed extract reduced the high levels of plasma lipids seen in diabetic rats to near-normal levels.
  • By regulating metabolism in the liver and kidney, the oral treatment of jamun seed extract lowered serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol.
  • It enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in diabetic rats.3 

Benefits of Jamun for Antioxidant: 

  • The administration of jamun-kernel extract orally to diabetic rats reduced the levels of certain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides in liver and kidney tissues to near-normal values.
  • There was a considerable recovery in glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver and kidney.3
  • With more research on humans, jamun may be useful in boosting antioxidant levels for slowing down ageing and reducing levels of inflammation.  

Benefits of Jamun for Gut: 

  • In different animal models having ulcers in the stomach, the extract of jamun seeds on stomach ulceration and secretion in rats was examined.
  • Jamun seeds extract reduced acid and pepsin production in the stomach while increasing gastric mucosal glycoproteins in rats. 
  • This helps lower stomach ulcer formation and allows for faster healing of ulcers.3 
  • The anti-diarrhoeal efficacy of E. jambolana bark was tested in rat diarrhoea models.
  • The extract considerably reduced the frequency of stools and the moisture of faecal droppings compared to control rats that were not given jamun. 3 

Benefits of Jamun for Liver: 

  • In rats, the extract of jamun pulp’s efficacy on rat model was investigated for its liver protective abilities.
  • Rats were given two different dosages of jamun, and the conventional medication silymarin showed lower enzyme levels and higher total protein and albumin levels.
  • Jamun pulp repaired the liver cells rapidly and helped bring the enzyme levels closer to normal levels.
  • It preserved the structure of the liver cells and helped in protein synthesis.3 

Benefits of Jamun for Allergy: 

  • In mice, jamun leaf extract reduced paw oedema.
  • Jamun leaf extract also directly affected mast cell degranulation, inhibiting in vitro histamine release induced by the mast cell degranulation i.e., reduced allergic reaction due to histamine release.
  • The presence of flavonoids in the jamun leaf extract may be responsible for these anti-allergic properties.3 

Benefits of Jamun for Arthritis: 

  • The anti-arthritic effect of jamun seeds extract on oral intake was investigated in rat models.
  • The red blood cell count, haemoglobin level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate all improved to near-normal levels after jamun seeds extract was given to the rats.
  • In jamun seeds extract-treated rats, joint space loss, bone resorption, and tissue swelling significantly reduced as the inflammation reduced.
  • With more research jamun extract might be a viable treatment for arthritis in humans too.3 

Benefits of Jamun for Infection: 

  • The antimicrobial activity of extracts of jamun bark were investigated.
  • The extracts were effective against a number of bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus warneri.3 

Benefits of Jamun for Kidney: 

  • The kidney protective activity of the active principle extracted from jamun fruit pulp was examined in rats.
  • In diabetic rats, treatment with the extract significantly decreased fasting blood glucose levels plasma creatinine level, blood urea, urine volume, microalbuminuria, and urinary sugar levels.3
  • All of these significantly aid in improving kidney health in the long term.  

Benefits of Jamun for Anaemia: 

  • The anti-anaemic activity of extract from the seeds of jamun has been reported.
  • The seed extract of jamun was found to increase total haemoglobin as per research.4 

 Benefits of Jamun for Brain: 

  • The effects of jamun seeds on central nervous system activity in mice were investigated.
  • Jamun extracts had a significant protective effect on the central nervous system.4 

In my experience, I have observed that consuming Jamun fruit extract may have positive effects against obesity. It appears to regulate gut microbial populations, leading to improvements in weight management, insulin sensitivity and liver health.

Dr. Rajeev Singh, BAMS

Benefits of Jamun for Radioprotective Activity: 

The leaves of jamun were examined for radioprotection. Micronuclei production in lymphocytes, which occurs due to radiation, was reduced by S. cumini.4 

Also Read: Ber Fruit – Uses, Benefits & Side Effects

How to Use Jamun? 

The following parts of jamun can be used:  

  1. Jamun stem bark5 
  2. Jamun seeds5 
  3. Jamun fruit pulp5 
  4. Jamun leaves5 
  5. Jamun kernels5 

Also Read: Methi – Uses, Benefits, Side Effects & Precautions

Side Effects of Jamun: 

As reported in the literature, flatulence, delayed digestion, laryngitis, inflammation in the lungs, and emphysema are all possible side effects of jamun.4 

Also Read: Wheatgrass – Uses, Benefits & Side Effects

Based on my experience, I have observed that Jamun leaf may have potential benefits in providing protection against DNA damage. This is important because DNA damage can lead to various health problems. The active components present in Jamun leaf seem to play a role in avoiding or repairing DNA damage, which can contribute to better health at a cellular level.

Dr. Smita barode, BAMS

Also Read: Jamun Juice: Exploring Its Health Benefits and Uses

Frequently Asked Questions: 

What is jamun? 

Jamin is a fruit which is usually oblong in shape, 1.5 to 3.5 centimetres long, dark-purple or black, delicious, and juicy, with a single big seed inside.1 

What are the chemical constituents of jamun?

Anthocyanins, ellagic acid, glucoside, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin are among the compounds found in jambolana.1 

Is jamun good for the liver?

Yes, it is good for the liver. E. jambolana showed liver protective activity in rats by lowering the liver serum enzyme levels that were high and improved production of protein and albumin by repairing liver cells.3 

What are the other names of jamun?

Jambolan, Indian blackberry, black plum, Malabar plum, Portuguese plum, purple plum and Jamaica are common names of jamun.1 

Is jamun fruit good for diabetics? 

Yes, jamun fruit is good for diabetes. The antidiabetic activity of E. jambolana seed powder was observed as increased body weight and improvement in peak blood glucose levels in rat study.3 

What are the benefits of jamun? 

The bark is astringent to the bowels, anthelmintic, and digestive used to cure sore throats, asthma, bronchitis, thirst, biliousness, ulcers, and dysentery. It also helps to purify the blood. The fruit is astringent to the bowels, sweet, acrid, cooling and astringent to the mouth, and it relieves bad breath, biliousness, stomachic, diuretic, and antidiabetic symptoms.1 

Also Read: Black Salt – Uses, Benefits, Side Effects & Precautions

References: 

  1. Ayyanar M, Subash-Babu P. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2(3): 240-246. 

https://sci-hub.st/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60050-1

  1. Shrikant Baslingappa S, Nayan Singh JT, Meghatai MP, et al. Jamun (Syzygium cumini (L.)): a review of its food and medicinal uses. Food Nutr Sci. 2012; 2012.  

https://www.scirp.org/pdf/FNS20120800006_15940773.pdf

  1. Srivastava S, Chandra D. Pharmacological potentials of Syzygium cumini: a review. J Sci Food Agri. 2013; 93(9): 2084-2093. 

https://sci-hub.st/10.1002/jsfa.6111

  1. Ahmad N, Nawab M, Kazmi MH. Medicinal potential of jamun (Syzygium cumini Linn): A review. J Drug Deliv Ther. 2019; 9(5):175-80. 

http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3568/2743 

  1.  Sharma VB, Soni MK, Onkar JN, Shrma O. Medicinal Uses Of Jamun [Syzygium Cumini (Linn) Skeeels.]: A Review Article. World J Pharm Med Res. 2019; 5 (8): 89-90 

Also Read: Majuphal – Uses, Benefits & Precautions

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