The term fissure here refers to an anal fissure, which is a painful condition affecting the anus region of the body. An anal fissure refers to a cut or a thin tear in the tissue that lines the inner part of the anus. A fissure is similar to a crack and it can even cause muscle around the anus to get exposed.
Anal fissures are very painful and they can affect people of all ages (from infants to the elderly). Surgery is the best fissure treatment and the procedure is simple.
These types of anal fissures are caused due to injury to the local tissues. Primary fissures are traditionally non-threatening and short-lived in nature. A lot of reasons contribute to primary fissures, like chronic diarrhoea, vaginal childbirth, hard stool passage and recurring trauma and injury around the anal area.
Secondary fissures tend to occur in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, patients who have had surgeries in the anus, infections and even cancer around the anal area. They can also occur due to Crohn’s disease or chlamydia infections.
Chronic constipation can cause difficulties in the passage of stool since it causes the stool to harden. The passage of stool during constipation can cause tears in the inner lining of the anus leading to an anal fissure.
Strained bowel movements can cause stress on the anus leading to cuts on the inner lining.
Prolonged diarrhoea causes strain on the anus which can lead to the development of fissures.
The performance of anal sex can cause stress on the anus and cause tears inside the anus.
Trauma on the anus due to surgery, insertion of foreign objects or accidental trauma can cause cuts in the inner lining of the anus.
Crohn’s disease is an autoimmune disease that causes irritable bowel. This leads to pressure on the anus resulting in fissures.
STDs like gonorrhoea or HIV and AIDS can also lead to the development of anal fissures.
Fissuring can be the result of anal cancer too.
Anal fissure causes a lot of pain in and around the anus, which exaggerates while passing stools and is persistent even after it.
Painful bowel movement is an indicator of an anal fissure.
If you notice bright red blood being passed along with the stool, it may be an indicator of a fissure.
A fissure can cause a visible tear or crack in the skin near the region of the anus and the surrounding area.
Skin tags are small outgrowths of the skin that can form as a result of anal fissures.
A burning sensation in the anal passage or the region surrounding the anus is also an indicator of a fissure.
An anal fissure can lead to infection in the anus leading to the discharge of foul-smelling fluids.
Using rough materials (such as stiff toilet paper or cloth) can scratch, irritate or inflame the soft tissues in the anal region. Additionally, not being gentle while cleaning the anus can directly lead to fissures. Always be gentle and use soft materials when cleaning the area.
Using scented paper or products when cleaning the region may also cause irritation, especially if you already have sensitive skin. Choose soaps, cleansers and toilet paper that is unscented and free from added chemical sand colouring.
Practise healthy bowel habits like taking your time when going to the toilet, seeking medical help for any instance of diarrhoea or constipation, avoiding straining when you pass bowel and going to the toilet when you feel the urge instead of trying to hold it in.
Maintain a diet with ample amounts of dietary fibre and drink plenty of water every day. Both of these can support smooth digestion and avoid constipation. Additionally, try to exercise regularly to support a healthier digestive system.