Urine for microalbuminuria is a urine test done for detecting presence of albumin (protein) in urine, in very small quantities.
Why is it Done?
This is a specialized urine test done for detecting early signs of kidney damage in patients who are at risk of developing CKD (chronic kidney disease or chronic renal failure). As kidney damage can cause leakage of proteins in urine, albumin is one of the first proteins that leaks through kidneys.
When should it be performed?
This test is performed
In patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Once a year as a screening test for kidney damage
After 5 years of diabetes being diagnosed to assess kidney damage
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Once a year as a screening test
After 5-10 years of onset of diabetes to assess kidney damage
In patients with high blood pressure (hypertension)
Once a year or once in 6 months as a screening test
After 5-7 years of onset of hypertension
When a patient who is having high blood pressure or diabetes and presents with symptoms like
Dry & itchy skin
Lack of sleep or disturbed sleep rhythm
Increased frequency of urination
Blood in urine or urine appears foamy
Swelling around eyes and legs
Weight loss and appetite loss
Frequent muscle cramps
How is it done
An early morning urine sample will be needed. Discard the first urine and collect sample from middle stream, avoiding any contact with skin. Collect urine in a sterile container.
The test is negative if levels are < 30 µg/mL
It implies absence of kidney damage due to diabetes or hypertension.
The test is positive if levels are between 30-300 µg/mL. It means-
Microalbuminuria is present
Early or incipient phase of kidney damage due to hypertension or diabetes
Grossly positive, if > 300 µg/mL
Proteinuria or Albuminuria
Damaged kidney and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD or chronic renal failure) due to hypertension or diabetes or both combined
It is a screening test for ruling out kidney disease and is done in conjunction with urine for microalbuminuria
Positive test results indicate kidney damage
24 hour urine for albumin
It is also a screening test for proteinuria due to kidney damage
It may be done with urine for microalbuminuria
Positive results indicate inception of kidney disease
Kidney function test (creatinine, Uric acid, Urea & BUN)
It is a blood test done to assess kidney functions
Increased levels of creatinine, uric acid and urea together indicate kidney failure
Serum protein analysis
It is done in conjunction with kidney or renal function test
This is a routine urine evaluation test
It assesses several aspects like color, pH, specific gravity of urine along with presence or absence of sugar, albumin (protein), blood, ketones etc in urine