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URINE FOR MICROALBUMINURIA

About the test
What is this test done for?
Urine for microalbuminuria is a urine test done for detecting presence of albumin (protein) in urine, in very small quantities.
Why is it Done?
This is a specialized urine test done for detecting early signs of kidney damage in patients who are at risk of developing CKD (chronic kidney disease or chronic renal failure). As kidney damage can cause leakage of proteins in urine, albumin is one of the first proteins that leaks through kidneys.
When should it be performed?

This test is performed

  • In patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus
    • Once a year as a screening test for kidney damage
    • After 5 years of diabetes being diagnosed to assess kidney damage
  • In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Once a year as a screening test
    • After 5-10 years of onset of diabetes to assess kidney damage
  • In patients with high blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Once a year or once in 6 months as a screening test
    • After 5-7 years of onset of hypertension
  • When a patient who is having high blood pressure or diabetes and presents with symptoms like
    • Dry & itchy skin
    • Easy fatiguability
    • Lack of sleep or disturbed sleep rhythm
    • Increased frequency of urination
    • Blood in urine or urine appears foamy
    • Swelling around eyes and legs
    • Weight loss and appetite loss
    • Frequent muscle cramps
How is it done
An early morning urine sample will be needed. Discard the first urine and collect sample from middle stream, avoiding any contact with skin. Collect urine in a sterile container.
Results

The test is negative if levels are < 30 µg/mL

It implies absence of kidney damage due to diabetes or hypertension.

The test is positive if levels are between 30-300 µg/mL. It means-

  • Microalbuminuria is present
  • Early or incipient phase of kidney damage due to hypertension or diabetes

Grossly positive, if > 300 µg/mL

  • Proteinuria or Albuminuria
  • Damaged kidney and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD or chronic renal failure) due to hypertension or diabetes or both combined
Other Tests
  • Albumin-creatinine ratio
    • It is a screening test for ruling out kidney disease and is done in conjunction with urine for microalbuminuria
    • Positive test results indicate kidney damage
  • 24 hour urine for albumin
    • It is also a screening test for proteinuria due to kidney damage
    • It may be done with urine for microalbuminuria
    • Positive results indicate inception of kidney disease
  • Kidney function test (creatinine, Uric acid, Urea & BUN)
    • It is a blood test done to assess kidney functions
    • Increased levels of creatinine, uric acid and urea together indicate kidney failure
  • Serum protein analysis
    • It is done in conjunction with kidney or renal function test
  • Urine routine
    • This is a routine urine evaluation test
    • It assesses several aspects like color, pH, specific gravity of urine along with presence or absence of sugar, albumin (protein), blood, ketones etc in urine
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