The normal range value is between 1,50,000 to 4, 50,000 platelets/mL.If the levels are low, the condition is called thrombocytopenia and could be due to bone marrow diseases like sickle cell anemia; idiopathic thrombocytopenia as a result of antibody production against platelets; viral infections like mononucleosis, HIV etc; leukaemia, lymphoma, aplastic anaemia, liver cirrhosis, chemotherapy that affects bone marrow or exposure to toxic elements like pesticides or arsenic. In fevers like malaria, dengue, the platelet count drops down and the test is used to monitor treatment.
- Elevated levels of platelets are seen in cancers like lung, digestive tract, or ovarian cancer or lymphoma.
- Iron deficiency anaemia also could cause thrombocytosis (high levels of platelets).
- Inflammatory bowel disease or rheumatoid arthritis is also responsible to increase the levels.
- Tuberculosis, certain drugs like birth control pills, if spleen is removed surgically, and cases of recovery from excessive alcohol consumption can lead to high levels of platelets. Due to excessive platelets individuals will be at risk of excessive blood clotting.
- A rare condition, thrombocythemia is caused by bone marrow disease leading to thrombocytosis.