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Diabetes Insipidus vs Diabetes Mellitus: Everything You Must Know

Diabetes insipidus vs Diabetes Mellitus
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Diabetes can be classified into two categories: Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Both have serious consequences, though they are entirely different from each other. Let’s take a look at both of them and understand the differences.

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus is a rare disease. It is caused when there are problems related to ADH (Anti Diuretic Hormone). Someone with diabetes insipidus suffers from excessive urination. There is no increase in the blood glucose levels, unlike diabetes mellitus. A series of tests are needed to diagnose the condition. If left untreated, the condition can cause kidney damage and chronic kidney disease.

Due to excessive urination, the person feels an increased thirst leading to excessive fluid consumption. Patients are at risk of suffering from dehydration. It is of four types:

  1. Central Diabetes Insipidus
  2. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
  3. Dipsogenic Diabetes Insipidus
  4. Gestational Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is the more common form of diabetes. It causes elevated sugar levels in the blood. The body breaks down food into glucose that is the fuel for the cells for carrying out regular metabolic processes. When the body cannot process this glucose efficiently, it leads to high sugar levels that have serious health complications like kidney failure, vision loss, and amputations.

Diabetes mellitus is of two types.

  1. Type 1 Diabetes- In this, the pancreas, which is the seat of insulin production, do not produce enough insulin. This leads to high glucose levels.
  2. Type 2 Diabetes- In this, the body becomes resistant to the insulin present, and the cells are unable to use this insulin. It happens due to genetic and environmental factors. Most people who get this diabetes begin to suffer after hitting 40 years. The majority of diabetes cases are of this kind.

Read More: Difference Between Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus include increased thirst and hunger, excessive urination, frequent vaginal yeast infections, slow healing of cuts and scrapes, and tingling and numbness in the feet. The disease is treated by medications that control the sugar levels and by providing synthetic insulin in the body. A healthy diet, regular exercise, weight loss and timely administration of medication are the recommended course of treatment.

Diabetes Insipidus vs Diabetes Mellitus: In A Nutshell

Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes Mellitus
Caused by problems in hypothalamus Caused by problems in the pancreas
Caused by deficiency of ADH Caused by a deficiency of insulin hormone
Glucose levels are not elevated glucose levels are elevated
Urine doesn’t have glucose present Urine has glucose present
Urine is much diluted. It has no odour Urine of normal concentration
Excessive urination Urination much lesser than in diabetes insipidus
No increase in blood cholesterol Increase in blood cholesterol
Eating patterns do not change Eating patterns change with excessive hunger
Negative results when tested for ketone bodies in urine Positive results when tested for ketone bodies in urine

Both, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus need urgent medical intervention. Consult your doctor if you suffer from any of these symptoms.

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